The presence of these criteria defines a high tumor burden 7, Patients with NMZL limited to a single lymph node area are candidates for radiotherapy. In patients with HCV infection, antiviral therapy may induce remission. In advanced stages, a combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is usually recommended. Rituximab is the choice for immunotherapy.
Etiopathogeny and clinical characteristics of HIV-associated lymphomas
In selected cases, it could be administered in monotherapy, for example in patients who are more mildly symptomatic or have significant comorbidities associated and are poor candidates for the combination therapy 1,7,12, In disseminated-stage disease, the combination between immunochemotherapy and chemotherapy is considered an appropriate option. There is no consensus as to which chemotherapy line would be the best choice.
Thus, the decision is individualized and tailored to each case.
The lifespan of people diagnosed with HIV has increased over the years and, as a result, malignancies have a larger contribution to morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive population. Compared with general population, HIV-positive population has an increased risk to develop lymphomas. The improvement of survival in HIV-positive patients is the consequence of improved antiretroviral therapy, being more accessible and well tolerated, and the consequence of improved supportive strategies for these patients. Keywords HIV, lymphoma, cancer Rezumat Infecţia cu virusul imunodeficienţei umane HIV este asociată cu dereglări ale imunităţii celulare, care predispun la apariţia neoplaziilor, inclusiv a limfoamelor. Speranţa de viaţă a persoanelor diagnosticate cu HIV s-a îmbunătăţit de-a lungul anilor şi, ca urmare, neoplazia are o contribuţie crescută la morbiditatea şi mortalitatea populaţiei HIV-pozitive.
In case of high tumour burden, the treatment should be more aggressive. There were reported few cases of patients treated with these regimens in clinical trials due to excessive toxicity and high rates of adverse events. Rituximab in association with lenalidomide is an effective therapeutic option as first-line treatment, phase-2 clinical trials reporting complete responses in 55 to 65 percent of cases 17, Treatment perspectives and novelties In recent years, there has been an increase interest to use target drugs with high therapeutic effects and limited adverse effects.
Other drugs with targeted effects tested in NMZl are everolimus, idelalisib and copanlisib 4. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been tested successfully.
It was administrated alone or in association with rituximab 1,4. But data are scarce and were obtained from studies on patients who also had other types of lymphoproliferative disorders 4. Hematopoietic cell transplantation — there are limited data regarding the administration of intensive chemotherapy, consolidated by stem cell transplantation in NMZ 1.
There have been cited cases that have obtained a fully maintained response for a long time after the transplant. The immediate and late risks of the procedure had to be taken into consideration.
Conclusions Marginal zone lymphoma remains a relatively unusual and polymorphic disease of B-cells, with a further need for investigations regarding its etiopathogenity, diagnosis and treatment. NMZL is a distinct identity among small B-cell lymphomas. It is distinct, having unique clinical and morphological features, but also it may present with similarities with the other marginal zone lymphoma subtypes and also follicular lymphomas. Nodal marginal zone lymphoma is usually confined in lymph nodes.
Most cases are diagnosed in advanced stages, but remain asymptomatic and rarely develop the bulky disease.
Immunochemotherapy remains the main choice for the treatment of NMZL. The latest data have shown promising results in understanding the pathological mechanisms and in the implementation of the target medication. With all the development, there is still an unmet need for clinical trials for patients with MZL, for better defined prognostic factors and for standardized therapeutic guidelines.
Conflicts of interests: The authors declare no conflict of interests. Nodal marginal zone lymphoma. The updated WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasias. Hematological Oncology.
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Hodgkin cancer drug
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It's a form of cancer of the lymphatic system. Limfomul Hodgkin este unul din cele mai comune 2 tipuri de cancer ale sistemului limfatic. Limfomul care nu este Hodgkin este celălalt tip de cancer.
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